1912 - The enterprise called «Tests on Types of Steam Locomotives» was organized in St. Petersburg at the Engineering Council of Railway Ministry. It was headed by Prof. Y. Lomonosov, member of Engineering Council, who was the main supervisor of tests on steam locomotive types. (Its results concerning traction and heat engineering research for the operating lines provided the order Decapod E-series steam locomotives from USA in 1915).
1917 — The Experimental Office tested the main series of steam locomotives earlier operating on Russian railways, published their passports, started tests of steam engine fuel, developed basics of traction calculations in the form of illustrative and precise techniques of applying experimental data to tasks of everyday practice. (In March 1918 the Experimental Office was evacuated as a part of NKPS to Moscow).
1918 — The First Branch Research Center was established on the base of Experimental Institute of Transport Routes under the decree of the Board of People’s Commissariat for Transport Routes on April 18th, 1918. The main task of the new Institute was to conduct research and testing of railway technology in order to improve its design. The address of Institute was Gorokhovaya Street (now Kazakova Street, 8).
The Institute for Traction Reconstruction has organized a wagon sector.
The Welding Sector was created as part of the Department of Metals (in 1948 it was separated into a separate subdivision — the Welding Department).
The world’s first Experimental Railway Loop was created — a unique structure that eventually became the Institute’s largest experimental base. The construction was supervised by Professor N.I. Belokon.
The steam locomotive EMO710-53 was the first test object at Test loop.
The Institute also founded the Test Loop, which produced experimental samples of new machinery and laboratory equipment directed by R. Shneiderman.
NKPS Central Carriage Research Institute was organized; there were the first to test the strength and running properties of the cars, using a special car-laboratory. In 1935 NKPS became a part of VNIIZhT.
Two major research centers were created: the Research Institute of Railway Transport (NIIZhT) near Moscow-3 station — under the direction of Professor VN Obraztsov, and the Research Institute of Track and Construction (NIIPS) in Beskudnikovo — under the direction of A. Lazarevsky.
Major developments of the Institute of that period: the first Soviet automatic coupler, magnetic defectoscope, devices of contact network and current collectors for the electrified sections of railways. The model of the first Soviet automatic control system was manufactured at the Test Plant in 1937 at the World Exhibition in Paris. It received the highest assessment — the Grand Prix Diploma.
In 1938 NKPS institutes organized groups to study the dynamics of the rolling stock.
Creation of the CSRI experimental testing area on the Beskudnikovskaya branch to study the track structure, artificial and civil structures
Autostop with point-to-point information transfer to the locomotive was created (Candidate of Technical Sciences A.Tantsyura).
The department of organization and mechanization of track works was established.
A system of three-digit point ALS with auto-stop was created.
In 1958, a special department of computer technology was organized in the institute, and this was the beginning of the development and implementation of the latest technologies that increase the efficiency of railway transport.
High-speed electric trains EVS1 and EVS2 with a design speed of 250 km/h Velaro Rus models are designed to carry passengers on high-speed electrified lines of 1520 mm gauge DC with voltage of 3000 V and alternating current with voltage of 25 kV with frequency of 50kV Hz, equipped with high passenger platforms. The electric train was created by ordered by Russian Railways by Siemens AG and manufactured in Germany at the Krefeld plant.
When developing the design of the electric train and its systems, Siemens specialists in collaboration with Russian specialists seriously reworked the basic Velaro model intended for the European market. First of all, it should be noted that the undercarriage was completely redesigned for the possibility of operation on 1520 mm gauge roads, new aluminum bodies 3265 mm wide were developed for the T dimension and platform height of 1300 mm, the operation of the electric train equipment and the microclimate interior spaces in winter conditions at outdoor temperatures up to 45 C. The ergonomics of the driver’s cab has been changed, Russian traffic safety systems have been installed and integrated into the train control system. For «Russification» design, changes have been made to almost all systems of the electric train.
The first experimental electric train EVS2-01 was manufactured in 2008, consisting of 10 cars. Equipment adjustment and preliminary tests were carried out in 2009 by the developer’s specialists, test trips were carried out on Oktyabrskaya road and on VNIIZhT Experimental Ring in Shcherbinka. Acceptance and certification tests were carried out by testing centers VNIIZhT, VNIIZhG and VelNII in 2009 year. In the test process, the maximum speed of 291 km/h was achieved.
Electric train «Lastochka» (Siemens electric train, 1st / 2nd type) — a family of passenger electric trains created on the basis of the Siemens Desiro platform for Russian Railways OJSC; (JSC «Russian Railways»). Electric trains ES1 — dual-system (direct current 3 kV and alternating current 25 kV), ES2G and ES2GP — direct current 3 kV («G» — «urban», «P» — «premium»).
More than a hundred compositions of «Swallow» all varieties. Most of them are in passenger operation, a significant part of the trains are used as interregional or suburban express trains or city trains (ES2G), some trains are operated as suburban trains. Also, the electric train was used to transport participants and guests of the XXII Winter Olympic Games in 2014 in Sochi.
JSC «VNIIZhT» in cooperation with JSC Russian Railways, NPK «OVK», JSC «VNIKTI», MGUPS (MIIT), NII MOSTOV, ITs TsIMK, Association of testing centers of railway equipment prepared a comprehensive research program.
The purpose of the tests was a comprehensive economic assessment of the commissioning of freight trains formed from cars with an axle load of 27 tf, taking into account changes in the cost of track infrastructure, traction support, car maintenance and organization of train traffic.
The bulk of the research was aimed at studying the influence circulation of wagons with an axle load of 27 tf to track infrastructure facilities — track superstructure, subgrade, artificial structures.
Tests were carried out at Kachkanar — The link of the Sverdlovsk railway.